Urologists diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of the urinary system in females and the genitourinary system (urinary system and genital organs) in males. The urinary system is made up of: the kidneys, ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), bladder, sphincter muscles (muscles around the opening of the bladder into the urethra) and urethra (tube that carries urine to the outside of the body). Male reproductive organs include the penis, scrotum, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate (a walnut-sized gland situated between the bladder and the penis and in front of the rectum). Urologists may treat a variety of conditions, including: benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), an enlargement of the prostate gland; prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate); prostate cancer; bladder cancer; haematuria (blood in the urine, which may be caused by problems with the kidneys, bladder or prostate, or blockages in the ureter); kidney failure (when the kidneys cannot remove waste products from the blood or control the amount of water in your body); stones which form in the kidneys but can be found anywhere in the urinary system; proteinuria (protein in the urine which may indicate a problem with the kidneys); bladder control problems such as incontinence or retention; and urinary tract infections (UTIs).
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