Including fertility, pregnancy, gynaecology, breast surgery, public screening programmes, cosmetic services, varicose veins, menopause management and endometriosis.
Gynaecologists treat a wide range of conditions, including cancer and pre-cancerous diseases of the reproductive organs including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva; urinary incontinence; painful, heavy or absent menstrual periods; infertility; prolapse of pelvic organs; and infections of the vagina, cervix and uterus.
Breast Surgeons are General Surgeons who have sub-specialised in the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of breast disease in women (generally), and men. Breast cancer detection and surgery is their major focus. Breast Surgeons usually work as part of a multidisciplinary team.
Endometriosis is a common condition in which small pieces of the uterus (womb) lining, known as the endometrium, are found outside the uterus. Endometriosis is a long-term condition with no known cure, but symptoms can be managed and fertility improved with pain medication, hormone treatment or surgery, so that the condition does not interfere with daily life.
Colposcopy is a procedure undertaken by a Gynaecologist in which a lighted magnifying instrument (a colposcope) is used to help examine the tissues of the vulva, vagina and cervix. Colposcopy is often used to check potentially cancerous areas, usually after a Pap smear test has indicated a possible problem.
Continence management means managing any loss of bladder or bowel control (incontinence). Once the condition is assessed, a treatment plan is created. Treatment options range from symptom management, behaviour management, and medications to surgery. The least invasive treatment is started first.
Fibroids are common, benign (non-cancerous) tumours of smooth muscle usually occurring in the uterus (womb). Fibroids do not produce symptoms in all women, but may lead to prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding, pressure or pain in the pelvis, and rarely to infertility. In addition to hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus), less invasive surgical procedures are used to remove uterine fibroids.
Gynaecological Laparoscopic Surgery
Enables the surgeon to: look for the cause of any symptoms; remove scar tissue or other abnormal tissue; repair or remove part or all of the ovaries or fallopian tubes; remove an abnormal pelvic mass or ovarian cyst; look for the spread of cancer and perform a biopsy; remove lymph nodes or pelvic organs; evaluate and treat infertility; remove the uterus (hysterectomy); remove uterine fibroids (myomectomy); carry out sterilisation (tubal ligation); treat sudden, severe pelvic pain; treat a tubal pregnancy; and remove uterine tissue found outside the uterus in the abdomen (endometriosis).
Gynaecological oncology is concerned with diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the female reproductive tract, including the cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, vagina and vulva. Gynaecological oncology services usually include colposcopy; surgical treatment and biopsy of gynaecological cancers; and ongoing management and follow-up care.
Hysteroscopy may be performed to diagnose or treat abnormalities of the uterus or cervix. It is used to evaluate a range of problems, including: abnormal vaginal bleeding; retained placenta after a birth; scarring, or adhesions, from previous uterine surgery or instrumentation; and polyps or fibroid tumours inside the cervical canal or the uterus.
The symptoms of menopause are caused by changes in levels of oestrogen and progesterone. Specific symptoms and severity varies from woman to woman. Common symptoms include: heart pounding or racing; hot flashes; night sweats; skin flushing; and sleeping problems. There may be a variety of additional symptoms, including: headaches; joint aches and pains; mood swings, irritability and depression; vaginal dryness and painful sex; and decreased interest in sex.
Urogynaecology involves treatment of women with pelvic floor disorders such as urinary or faecal incontinence (leakage of urine or faeces) and prolapse (bulging, sagging or falling) of the vagina, bladder and/or the uterus (womb). Urinary incontinence is a very common condition affecting at least 10–20 per cent of women under age 65 and over half of women over the age of 65.
Treatment is not always necessary for varicose veins, although severe cases, especially those involving ulcers, require treatment. Often, the varicose veins are removed to let blood flow through the remaining healthy veins. This can be done by surgery (vein stripping) or by a non-invasive procedure called sclerotherapy.
There is a wide range of vulvar (or vulval) conditions and diseases including: fungal, bacterial or viral infections (e.g. yeast infection, sexually transmitted infections); skin conditions (e.g. contact dermatitis); epithelial disorders (relating to the epithelium, the outside layer of cells that covers the skin and mucous membranes, e.g. lichen sclerosus); raised lesions or masses (e.g. cysts or abscesses); potentially malignant or malignant (cancerous) conditions (e.g. vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma); and injuries to the vulva.